Associate Director of Instructional Design & Media at Columbia University School of Professional Studies
We should present instructional content in ways that help learners make sense of the material. This is best done by helping them to select, organize, and integrate new material with relevant prior knowledge.
We do this generally by:
-Minimizing distractions in the material (Reduce Cognitive Load)
-Helping learners better process new material (Enhance Encoding)
-Supporting the construction of models of the material (Create Schemas)
These principles help to create useful online learning experiences with content in two ways:
1. They ensure that learners process information EFFICIENTLY in working memory (by using both the verbal and visual channels);
2. They encourage learners to process material ACTIVELY in each of these channels.
(Mayer & Clark)